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Ongoing project

Conditions and impacts of welfare mix

Comparative analysis of policy making, public discourse and service quality.

Project period 2015 - 2019
Project employer The Research Council of Norway
Project nr. 10108 / NFR: 248189
Project leader Karl Henrik Sivesind

Project Background

The fundament of European welfare societies is to give the whole population high quality services in health, care, and education. This can be obtained in a number of ways, and a core question is if the public, nonprofit organizations or for-profit firms provide the services. The different providers have different strengths, and the composition of providers, the welfare mix, is therefore crucial for the quality of the services provided to the public.

The population is becoming more diverse and has higher expectations. It is a challenge for the providers to offer good services to a population with increasing religious, cultural, and economic diversity. A possible solution is to promote active citizenship where the users are empowered to influence the content and of the service.

Moreover, the states need to mobilize the resources available from civil society, local communities, and individuals. One way to obtain this is through policies that create the best possible welfare mix in order to spur active citizenship.

Project Approach

It is within this context the project takes on the following questions:

  1. How is the welfare mix in Europe changing? We investigate this by analyzing the experiences from Norway with a Scandinavian welfare model, Germany with a corporative model, and United Kingdom with a liberal model.
  2. A new EU directive for public procurement will be implemented in the EU and EEC countries in 2016. What room for maneuver do the states have to adopt the implementation to national policy goals? We investigate this by looking at how policy makers and stakeholders in the three countries differently approach the directive.
  3. How do the users experience the differences between public, for-profit, and nonprofit providers? We investigate this through a survey to the service users in Norwegian municipalities.

Further information:



ParticipantDegree PhoneE-mail
Signe Bock Segaard Senior Research Fellow PhD +47 994 28 724
Karl Henrik Sivesind Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 997 06 127
Håkon Solbu Trætteberg Senior Research Fellow PhD +47 920 54 308
Annette Zimmer (the University of Münster)
Joachim Benedikt Pahl (the University of Münster)
Jeremy Kendall (the University of Kent)
Nadia Brooks (the University of Kent)


  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg & Audun Fladmoe (2020). Quality differences of public, for-profit and non-profit providers in Scandinavian welfare? User satisfaction in kindergartens. VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.  31, s 153- 167
  • Signe Bock Segaard; Nadia Brookes & Joachim Benedikt Pahl (2020). What Shapes National Responses to EU Public Procurement Policy? The Case of Health and Social Services in Norway, Germany and England. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration.  24, s 25- 48
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg & Audun Fladmoe (2020). Does educational inequality predict exercise of users' choice? Survey evidence from domiciliary care services among elderly in Oslo, Norway. Social Policy & Administration.
  • Signe Bock Segaard; Nadia Brookes & Pahl Joachim Benedikt (2019). Tre tolkningar av EU-direktivet om offentlig upphandling: Norge, Tyskland och England, In Ola Segnestam Larsson (ed.),  Upphandlad. Forskarperspektiv på offentlig upphandling inom vård och omsorg.  Idealistas Förlag.  ISBN 978-91-87003-28-8.  Kap 2.  s 53 - 85
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2018). Stability and Change in Scandinavian Welfare: The Nonprofit Sector as a Buffer against For-Profit Expansion, In Gunnar C. Aakvaag; Fredrik Engelstad & Cathrine Holst (ed.),  Democratic State and Democratic Society.  De Gruyter Open.  ISBN 978-3-11-063407-5.  Kapittel 13.  s 273 - 295
  • Jo Saglie & Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Civil society institutions or semi-public agencies? State regulation of parties and voluntary organizations in Norway. Journal of Civil Society.  14, s 292- 310
  • Tord Skogedal Lindén; Audun Fladmoe & Dag Arne Christensen (2017). Does the Type of Service Provider Affect User Satisfaction? Public, For-Profit and Nonprofit Kindergartens, Schools and Nursing Homes in Norway, In Karl Henrik Sivesind & Jo Saglie (ed.),  Promoting Active Citizenship : Markets and Choice in Scandinavian Welfare.  Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 978-3-319-55380-1.  7.  s 261 - 284

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  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2020). Idéburen välfärd i Norden och Europa. Var sker tillväxt och vilka är de institutionella tillväxtfaktorerna?.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2019). Endringer i ideelle velferdsaktørers sysselsetting og rolle.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2019). Ideelle organisasjoner i norsk velferd.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2019). Konsekvenser av markedsstyring for ideelle velferdsaktører. Norge sammenlignet med Storbritannia og Tyskland.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2019). Nye tall om ideelle velferd og frivillig sektor.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2019). Om ideelle velferdsaktører og endringer på feltet.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg & Audun Fladmoe (2019). Active citizenship for all? Evidence from home care services in Oslo, Norway.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg & Audun Fladmoe (2019). Private, ideelle barnehager har de mest fornøyde foreldrene. Aftenposten Viten.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2018). Ideelle aktører i den skandinaviske velferdsmodellen.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Endringer i ideelle velferdsaktørers sysselsetting og rolle.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Endringer i ideelle velferdsaktørers rolle og politiske rammebetingelser.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Konsekvenser av markedsstyring for ideelle velferdsaktører. Norge sammenlignet med Storbritannia og Tyskland.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind; Annette Zimmer & Jeremy Kendall (2018). Differences in Third Sector Welfare Models in Norway, UK and Germany.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Organized panel: "Third Sector Organizations in Health and Social Care Services in Norway, UK and Germany".
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Will user choice reduce equal opportunities in Scandinavian compulsory education?.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg & Audun Fladmoe (2018). User satisfaction with public, for-profit and nonprofit providers in the Scandinavian welfare model: The case of kindergartens in the City of Oslo.
  • Signe Bock Segaard & Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). The Power of Nonprofit Actors in Policy Making Process.Analyzing Interest Group Strategies that Changed the Implementation of an EU Directive in Norway.
  • Signe Bock Segaard; Nadia Brookes & Joachim Benedikt Pahl (2018). Decisive factors for national political discourses on EU policies for public procurement. The conditions for non-profit health and social service providers.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Will user choice reduce equal opportunities in Scandinavian compulsory education?.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2018). Blir skandinaviske velferdstjenester svekket av markedsreformer? Forholdet mellom offentlige, kommersielle og ideelle velferdstilbydere. Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning.  21, s 70- 76
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2017). Ideelles merverdi - hva er den og hvordan vises den i dag?.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2017). The role of nonprofit organizations in the modern welfare society.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2017). Nyere forskning om ideelle organisasjoner.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2017). Hva er en ideell aktør.
  • Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2017). Ideelles merverdi - hva er den og hvordan vises den i dag?.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2017). Ideelle velferdsaktørers omfang og rolle.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2017). De ideelles handlingsrom og påvirkningsmuligheter i utformingen av ny velferdspolitikk.
  •  (2017). Velferdskapitalismen.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind & Håkon Solbu Trætteberg (2017). God privat velferd mulig? Undervurderer hindre for effektive velferdsmarkeder. Dagens næringsliv.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2016). Ideell og snill? Velferd på anbud.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2016). Sivilsamfunnets rolle i et fremtidsperspektiv.
  • Karl Henrik Sivesind (2016). Velferdsstaten i et nordisk lys.

View all works in Cristin

Tags: Civil Society, Welfare
Published Aug. 7, 2015 9:28 AM - Last modified June 18, 2020 2:01 PM