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Completed project

Gender Segregation in the Labour Market

Comparative Perspectives and Welfare State Challenges

Project period 2014 - 2018
Project employer The Research Council of Norway
Project nr. 10033
Project leader Liza Reisel

Project background

This research project will investigate the ways in which women and men are unequally placed in the labour market. We will study the mechanisms that contribute to different educational choices among boys and girls, and what happens in the transition from education to work.

Once men and women have entered the labour market, there are processes at play that contribute further to gender gaps in career development and wages. We will study how different welfare state arrangements affect these developments through comparing Norway with other countries.

Project structure

The research project consists of four main parts.

  1. International comparisons across several countries, in order to investigate how different institutional contexts affect the extent to which men and women are  unequally distributed in the labour market.
  2. Comparisons of female career patterns in the United States and Norway, with particular focus on access to top positions, recruitment policies and decision making within the household.
  3. Boys' and girls' educational choices and performance, attitudes towards female- or male typical study programs, and consequences for labour market entry in Norway.
  4. Mechanisms that channel men and women into different positions within the Norwegian labour market over the life course.

We will be using different kinds of data sources. Some questions will be answered by using available large scale survey data, some by using data from Norwegian public registries that follow the population over many years, and some by collecting new data through case studies and questionnaires.

The project team consists of researchers from the Institute for Social Research in collaboration with the University of Oslo and the Oslo and Akershus College of Applied Sciences. For the international comparisons we will collaborate with researchers at Boston University, Wellesley College, UC San Diego and the University of Basel.

Further project information and list of publications can be found in  Prosjektbanken.

This project is connected to CORE - Centre for Research on Gender Equality.

Media Coverage

The Average Mid-Forties Male College Graduate Earns 55% More Than His Female Counterparts, 12.6.2017, Harvard Business Review

The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood, 13.5.2017, New York Times

Further information (in Norwegian):



ParticipantDegree PhoneE-mail
Erling Barth Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 930 91 410
Sigtona Halrynjo Senior Resarch Fellow PhD +47 481 21 698
Inés Hardoy Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 472 45 113
Ragni Hege Kitterød Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 950 50 375
Liza Reisel Research Director, Equality, inclusion, migration PhD +47 975 71 460
Pål Schøne Research Professor PhD +47 986 22 125
Mari Teigen Research professor, Director CORE – Centre for Research on Gender Equality Dr. polit. +47 482 07 137
Kjersti Misje Østbakken Research Director, Work and Welfare PhD +47 991 62 556
Kristinn Hegna
Christian Imdorf
Mary Blair-Loy
Claudia Olivetti
Sari Pekkala Kerr
Anne Lise Ellingsæter


  • Erling Barth; Sari Pekkala Kerr & Claudia Olivetti (2021). The dynamics of gender earnings differentials: Evidence from establishment data. European Economic Review.  134
  • Torben Iversen; Frances Mccall Rosenbluth & Øyvind Søraas Skorge (2020). The dilemma of gender equality: How labor market regulation divides women by class. Daedalus.  149, s 86- 99
  • Liza Reisel; Kjersti Misje Østbakken & Paul Attewell (2019). Dynamics of Claims Making and Gender Wage Gaps in the United States and Norway. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society.  26, s 164- 187
  • Laufey Axelsdottir & Sigtona Halrynjo (2018). Gender Balance in Executive Management: Top-Managers' Understanding of Barriers and Solutions from the Demand-Supply Perspective. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society.  25, s 287- 314
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Mari Teigen (2018). Bringing Managers Back in: Support for Gender-Equality Measures in the Business Sector. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies.  8, s 155- 175
  • Mari Teigen & Hege Skjeie (2017). The Nordic Gender Equality Model, In Oddbjørn P. Knutsen (ed.),  The Nordic Models in Political Science : Challenged, but Still Viable?.  Fagbokforlaget.  ISBN 978-82-450-2175-2.  Chapter 5.  s 125 - 147
  • Ines Hardoy; Pål Schøne & Kjersti Misje Østbakken (2017). Kjønnsforskjeller i ledelse: Kohort eller -livsløp?. Søkelys på arbeidslivet.  34, s 95- 107
  • Ines Hardoy; Pål Schøne & Kjersti Misje Østbakken (2017). Children and the gender gap in management. Labour Economics.  47, s 124- 137
  • Claudia Goldin; Sari Pekkala Kerr; Claudia Olivetti & Erling Barth (2017). The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census. The American Economic Review.  107, s 110- 114
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Marit Rønsen (2017). Does Involved Fathering Produce a Larger Total Workload for Fathers Than for Mothers? Evidence from Norway. Family Relations.  66, s 468- 483
  • Sigtona Halrynjo & Mari Teigen (2016). Likestilling i framtidas arbeidsliv?, In Mari Teigen & Sigtona Halrynjo (ed.),  Ulik likestilling i arbeidslivet.  Gyldendal Akademisk.  ISBN 978-82-05-49601-9.  Kapittel 15.  s 299 - 309
  • Liza Reisel; Kristinn Hegna & Christian Imdorf (2015). Gender segregation in vocational education: Introduction, In Christian Imdorf; Kristinn Hegna & Liza Reisel (ed.),  Gender segregation in vocational education.  Emerald Group Publishing Limited.  ISBN 978-1-78560-347-1.  Introduksjon.  s 1 - 22
  • Liza Reisel & Mari Teigen (2015). Kontinuitet og endring - kjønnsdeling på arbeidsmarkedet, In  Myndighet og medborgerskap: Festskrift til Gro Hagemann på 70-årsdagen 3. september 2015.  Novus Forlag.  ISBN 978-82-7099-819-7.  25.  s 323 - 338
  • Pål Schøne (2015). Kvinner, barn og valg av sektor: Har offentlig sektor fortsatt en tiltrekning?. Søkelys på arbeidslivet.  32, s 360- 376

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  • Kristinn Hegna; Liza Reisel & Christian Imdorf (ed.) (2015). Gender segregation in vocational education. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.  ISBN 978-1-78560-347-1.  300 s.

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  • Sigtona Halrynjo & Christina Hoelgaard Stoltenberg (2017). CORE Topplederbarometer 200 : Februar 2017.
  • Erling Barth; Sari Pekkala Kerr & Claudia Olivetti (2017). The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data.
  • Kjersti Misje Østbakken; Liza Reisel; Pål Schøne; Erling Barth & Ines Hardoy (2017). Kjønnssegregering og mobilitet i det norske arbeidsmarkedet. Rapport – Institutt for samfunnsforskning. 2017:09.

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  • Kjersti Misje Østbakken; Liza Reisel & Erling Barth (2019). Økt likestilling = mer frihet = mer likestilling i arbeidslivet. Likestillingsparadoksets død?.
  • Liza Reisel (2019). Understanding Stability and Change in the Gender Segregated Labour Market.
  • Liza Reisel; Kjersti Misje Østbakken & Erling Barth (2019). The Equality Hurdle: Resolving the Welfare State Paradox of Gender Segregation.
  • Liza Reisel (2019). Betydningen av kjønn for ungdommers utdanningsvalg.
  • Liza Reisel (2019). Hvorfor velger ungdom fortsatt kjønnsdelt? Om kjønn, status og utdanningsvalg.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo & Mary Blair-Loy (2019). Gender inequality in business careers in the U.S. and Norway: How regulatory and moral logics compete within the liberal economic logic of global capitalism..
  • Torben Iversen; Frances Rosenbluth & Øyvind Søraas Skorge (2019). The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class.
  • Liza Reisel & Kristinn Hegna (2019). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet.
  •  (2019). Dagsnytt 18: Menn dominerer toppen i norsk kokkekunst.
  • Liza Reisel (2018). Hvorfor vil ikke jenter bli rørleggere? Kjønn, status og utdanningsvalg blant ungdom.
  • Liza Reisel (2018). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet Norge.
  • Liza Reisel (2018). Betydningen av et kjønnsdelt arbeidsmarked.
  • Liza Reisel (2018). Hva vet vi om kjønnsdelingen i arbeidsmarkedet?.
  • Liza Reisel (2018). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet Norge.
  • Øyvind Søraas Skorge (2018). Care for career: Mothers, toddlers, and the benefit of daycare services for female leadership.
  • Øyvind Søraas Skorge (2018). Care for career: Mothers, toddlers, and the benefit of daycare services for female leadership.
  • Øyvind Søraas Skorge (2018). The gender equality paradox.
  •  (2018). Kvinnen anno 2018.
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød (2017). Går vi mot et symmetrisk foreldreskap i Norge? Yrkes- og familiearbeid blant foreldrepar..
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød (2017). Work-family policies and practices in Norway.
  • Liza Reisel (2017). Gutters og jenters valg av videregående utdanning. Hvilken rolle spiller kjønn?.
  • Liza Reisel (2017). Hva betyr det at arbeidsmarkedet er kjønnsdelt?.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2017). Kvinner og menn på toppen av næringslivet I et komparativt perspektiv. Norge og USA. Lansering av CORE Topplederbarometer 200..
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2017). Kjønns(u)balanse i toppledelse. Betydning av kvoteringslov og karrieredilemmaer i Norge..
  • Liza Reisel (2017). Fremtidens arbeidskraft – hvordan velger dagens gutter og jenter utdanning og yrke?.
  • Liza Reisel (2017). Fremtidens arbeidskraft – hvordan velger dagens gutter og jenter utdanning og yrke?.
  • Sara Marie Jorunn Seehuus & Liza Reisel (2017). Horizons of opportunity: Unpacking the logics of gendered educational choices.
  • Liza Reisel; Kjersti Misje Østbakken; Erling Barth; Pål Schøne & Ines Hardoy (2017). Occupational Segregation in Europe - Dissentangling the Role of Paid and Unpaid Work.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2017). Career and parenthood in the Nordic context – beyond family-friendly policies.
  •  (2017). Kjønnsavdelingen #8: Likestilling på universitetet: Kjønn, klasse eller karakterer?.
  •  (2017). Verdens rikeste land: Hvorfor velger menn og kvinner forskjellige yrker?.
  • Erling Barth; Claudia Goldin; Sari Pekkala Kerr & Claudia Olivetti (2017). The Average Mid-Forties Male College Graduate Earns 55% More Than His Female Counterparts. Harvard Business Review.  2017
  • Mari Teigen (2017). Er dette det norske samfunn? [Bokanmeldelse]. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning.  58, s 232- 235
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2017). Skjevdeling bremser likestillingen. Dagens næringsliv.
  • Liza Reisel (2017). Fremtidens arbeidsliv blir ikke mindre kjønnsdelt av seg selv. Aftenposten Viten.
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød (2016). Tidsbruk og arbeidstidsmønstre blant mødre og fedre.
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød (2016). Norwegian Gender Equality Policy: Historical Background, Development and Today's Challenges.
  • Liza Reisel (2016). Kvinner og utdanning i mannsdominerte bransjer.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2016). Hvordan står det til med kjønnsbalansen på toppen av næringslivet? Menn, kvinner og lederkarrierer – på ulike betingelser?.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2016). Kan vi tenke nytt om ledelse og livsfaser? Når er det «for sent» med en topplederkarriere?.
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød (2016). Policies and practices regarding the articulation of professional, family and personal life in Norway – an analysis adopting a time use approach.
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Sigtona Halrynjo (2016). Can paternity leave change gendered work-family patterns? An analysis of recent research from the Nordic countries..
  • Liza Reisel; Paul Attewell & Kjersti Misje Østbakken (2016). Dynamics of Gender and Economic Niches in Norway and the United States.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo & Mary Blair-Loy (2016). Does a family-friendly welfare state help shatter the corporate glass ceiling? Comparing Norway and the U.S..
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2016). Work-family dynamics and the logics of competition, care and regulation.
  • Mary Blair-Loy & Sigtona Halrynjo (2016). Bending Norms: Gender and the Cultural Understandings of Merit and Devotion.
  • Christian Imdorf; Kristinn Hegna & Verena Eberhard (2016). Geschlechtersegregation im Bildungssystem – Welche Rolle spielt die Berufsbildung?. Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis.  2016, s 23- 27
  • Erling Barth (2015). monopsonistic discrimination and the gender wage gap, In Steven N. Durlauf & Lawrence E. Blume (ed.),  The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Online Edition.  Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 9780230226388.  Kapittel.
  • Hege Kitterød (2015). Holdninger til kjønnskvotering i styrer blant toppledere i norsk næringsliv. Mer positive når bedriften selv har lovkrav?.
  • Hege Kitterød (2015). Men in families – changes in time use?.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2015). Kvinner og menn i toppledelse – karriereliv og familieliv.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2015). Kjønn, karriere og familieliv i møte med konkurranselogikkens spilleregler.
  • Sigtona Halrynjo (2015). Karriere, kjønn og omsorgsansvar. Hva skjer i småbarnsfasen?.
  • Mary Blair-Loy & Sigtona Halrynjo (2015). How shatterproof are glass ceilings in the business sector? Cultural and structural factors reinforcing gender inequality in the US and Norway..
  • Liza Reisel (2015). Bokanmeldelse: Torgeir Nyen og Anna Hagen Tønder: Yrkesfagene under press. Søkelys på arbeidslivet.  32, s 279- 280

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Tags: Working Life, Welfare, Gender Equality
Published Aug. 15, 2014 3:31 PM - Last modified Feb. 18, 2020 9:57 AM