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Completed project

Gender Segregation in the Labour Market

Comparative Perspectives and Welfare State Challenges

Project period 2014 - 2018
Project employer The Research Council of Norway
Project nr. 10033
Project leader Liza Reisel

Project background

This research project will investigate the ways in which women and men are unequally placed in the labour market. We will study the mechanisms that contribute to different educational choices among boys and girls, and what happens in the transition from education to work.

Once men and women have entered the labour market, there are processes at play that contribute further to gender gaps in career development and wages. We will study how different welfare state arrangements affect these developments through comparing Norway with other countries.

Project structure

The research project consists of four main parts.

  1. International comparisons across several countries, in order to investigate how different institutional contexts affect the extent to which men and women are  unequally distributed in the labour market.
  2. Comparisons of female career patterns in the United States and Norway, with particular focus on access to top positions, recruitment policies and decision making within the household.
  3. Boys' and girls' educational choices and performance, attitudes towards female- or male typical study programs, and consequences for labour market entry in Norway.
  4. Mechanisms that channel men and women into different positions within the Norwegian labour market over the life course.

We will be using different kinds of data sources. Some questions will be answered by using available large scale survey data, some by using data from Norwegian public registries that follow the population over many years, and some by collecting new data through case studies and questionnaires.

The project team consists of researchers from the Institute for Social Research in collaboration with the University of Oslo and the Oslo and Akershus College of Applied Sciences. For the international comparisons we will collaborate with researchers at Boston University, Wellesley College, UC San Diego and the University of Basel.

Further project information and list of publications can be found in  Prosjektbanken.

This project is connected to CORE - Centre for Research on Gender Equality.

Media Coverage

The Average Mid-Forties Male College Graduate Earns 55% More Than His Female Counterparts, 12.6.2017, Harvard Business Review

The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood, 13.5.2017, New York Times

Further information (in Norwegian):



ParticipantDegree PhoneE-mail
Erling Barth Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 930 91 410
Sigtona Halrynjo Senior Resarch Fellow PhD +47 481 21 698
Inés Hardoy Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 472 45 113
Ragni Hege Kitterød Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 950 50 375
Liza Reisel Research Professor PhD +47 975 71 460
Pål Schøne Research Professor PhD +47 986 22 125
Mari Teigen Research professor, Director CORE – Centre for Research on Gender Equality Dr. polit. +47 482 07 137
Kjersti Misje Østbakken Research Director, Work and Welfare PhD +47 991 62 556
Kristinn Hegna
Christian Imdorf
Mary Blair-Loy
Claudia Olivetti
Sari Pekkala Kerr
Anne Lise Ellingsæter


  • Barth, Erling; Kerr, Sari Pekkala & Olivetti, Claudia (2021). The dynamics of gender earnings differentials: Evidence from establishment data. European Economic Review. 134. doi: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2021.103713. Full text in Research Archive
  • Iversen, Torben; Rosenbluth, Frances Mccall & Skorge, Øyvind Søraas (2020). The dilemma of gender equality: How labor market regulation divides women by class. Daedalus. 149(1), p. 86–99. doi: 10.1162/DAED_a_01775. Full text in Research Archive
  • Reisel, Liza; Østbakken, Kjersti Misje & Attewell, Paul (2019). Dynamics of Claims Making and Gender Wage Gaps in the United States and Norway. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society. 26(1), p. 164–187. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxy019. Full text in Research Archive
  • Axelsdottir, Laufey & Halrynjo, Sigtona (2018). Gender Balance in Executive Management: Top-Managers' Understanding of Barriers and Solutions from the Demand-Supply Perspective. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society. 25(2), p. 287–314. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxy012. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege & Teigen, Mari (2018). Bringing Managers Back in: Support for Gender-Equality Measures in the Business Sector. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. 8(3), p. 155–175. doi: 10.18291/njwls.v8i3.109545. Full text in Research Archive
  • Teigen, Mari & Skjeie, Hege (2017). The Nordic Gender Equality Model. In Knutsen, Oddbjørn P. (Eds.), The Nordic Models in Political Science : Challenged, but Still Viable?. Fagbokforlaget. p. 125–147. Full text in Research Archive
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege & Rønsen, Marit (2017). Does Involved Fathering Produce a Larger Total Workload for Fathers Than for Mothers? Evidence from Norway. Family Relations. 66(July), p. 468–483. doi: 10.1111/fare.12264. Full text in Research Archive
  • Hardoy, Ines; Schøne, Pål & Østbakken, Kjersti Misje (2017). Kjønnsforskjeller i ledelse: Kohort eller -livsløp? Søkelys på arbeidslivet. 34(1-2), p. 95–107. doi: 10.18261/issn-1504-7989-2017-01-02-06. Full text in Research Archive
  • Goldin, Claudia; Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Olivetti, Claudia & Barth, Erling (2017). The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census. The American Economic Review. 107(5), p. 110–114. doi: 10.1257/aer.p20171065. Full text in Research Archive
  • Hardoy, Ines; Schøne, Pål & Østbakken, Kjersti Misje (2017). Children and the gender gap in management . Labour Economics. 47, p. 124–137. doi: 10.1016/j.labeco.2017.05.009. Full text in Research Archive
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona & Teigen, Mari (2016). Likestilling i framtidas arbeidsliv? In Halrynjo, Sigtona & Teigen, Mari (Ed.), Ulik likestilling i arbeidslivet. Gyldendal Akademisk. p. 299–309. Full text in Research Archive
  • Reisel, Liza; Hegna, Kristinn & Imdorf, Christian (2015). Gender segregation in vocational education: Introduction. In Imdorf, Christian; Hegna, Kristinn & Reisel, Liza (Ed.), Gender segregation in vocational education. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. p. 1–22. doi: 10.1108/S0195-631020150000031023. Full text in Research Archive
  • Schøne, Pål (2015). Kvinner, barn og valg av sektor: Har offentlig sektor fortsatt en tiltrekning? Søkelys på arbeidslivet. 32(4), p. 360–376. Full text in Research Archive
  • Reisel, Liza & Teigen, Mari (2015). Kontinuitet og endring - kjønnsdeling på arbeidsmarkedet, Myndighet og medborgerskap: Festskrift til Gro Hagemann på 70-årsdagen 3. september 2015. Novus Forlag. p. 323–338.

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  • Halrynjo, Sigtona & Stoltenberg, Christina Hoelgaard (2017). CORE Norwegian Gender Balance Scorecard 200 : February 2017. Institutt for samfunnsforskning: CORE Kjernemiljø for kjønnslikestilling - Institute for Social Research: Centre for research on gender equality. Full text in Research Archive
  • Barth, Erling; Kerr, Sari Pekkala & Olivetti, Claudia (2017). The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data. NBER Working Paper # 23381.
  • Østbakken, Kjersti Misje; Reisel, Liza; Schøne, Pål; Barth, Erling & Hardoy, Ines (2017). Kjønnssegregering og mobilitet i det norske arbeidsmarkedet. Institutt for samfunnsforskning.

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  • Iversen, Torben; Rosenbluth, Frances & Skorge, Øyvind Søraas (2019). The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class.
  • Reisel, Liza & Hegna, Kristinn (2019). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet.
  • Reisel, Liza (2019). Dagsnytt 18: Menn dominerer toppen i norsk kokkekunst. [Radio]. NRK.
  • Reisel, Liza (2019). Hvorfor velger ungdom fortsatt kjønnsdelt? Om kjønn, status og utdanningsvalg.
  • Reisel, Liza (2019). Understanding Stability and Change in the Gender Segregated Labour Market.
  • Reisel, Liza (2019). Betydningen av kjønn for ungdommers utdanningsvalg.
  • Reisel, Liza; Østbakken, Kjersti Misje & Barth, Erling (2019). The Equality Hurdle: Resolving the Welfare State Paradox of Gender Segregation.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona & Blair-Loy, Mary (2019). Gender inequality in business careers in the U.S. and Norway: How regulatory and moral logics compete within the liberal economic logic of global capitalism.
  • Østbakken, Kjersti Misje; Reisel, Liza & Barth, Erling (2019). Økt likestilling = mer frihet = mer likestilling i arbeidslivet. Likestillingsparadoksets død?
  • Skorge, Øyvind Søraas (2018). The gender equality paradox.
  • Skorge, Øyvind Søraas (2018). Care for career: Mothers, toddlers, and the benefit of daycare services for female leadership.
  • Skorge, Øyvind Søraas (2018). Care for career: Mothers, toddlers, and the benefit of daycare services for female leadership.
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Hvorfor vil ikke jenter bli rørleggere? Kjønn, status og utdanningsvalg blant ungdom.
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet Norge.
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Hva vet vi om kjønnsdelingen i arbeidsmarkedet?
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Kvinnen anno 2018. [Radio]. NRK.
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Kjønnsdelte utdanningsvalg i likestillingslandet Norge.
  • Reisel, Liza (2018). Betydningen av et kjønnsdelt arbeidsmarked.
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Verdens rikeste land: Hvorfor velger menn og kvinner forskjellige yrker? [Radio]. NRK P3.
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Gutters og jenters valg av videregående utdanning. Hvilken rolle spiller kjønn?
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Fremtidens arbeidskraft – hvordan velger dagens gutter og jenter utdanning og yrke?
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Kjønnsavdelingen #8: Likestilling på universitetet: Kjønn, klasse eller karakterer? [Radio]. Kjønnsavdelingen podkast.
  • Seehuus, Sara Marie Jorunn & Reisel, Liza (2017). Horizons of opportunity: Unpacking the logics of gendered educational choices.
  • Reisel, Liza; Østbakken, Kjersti Misje; Barth, Erling; Schøne, Pål & Hardoy, Ines (2017). Occupational Segregation in Europe - Dissentangling the Role of Paid and Unpaid Work.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2017). Career and parenthood in the Nordic context – beyond family-friendly policies.
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege (2017). Går vi mot et symmetrisk foreldreskap i Norge? Yrkes- og familiearbeid blant foreldrepar.
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege (2017). Work-family policies and practices in Norway.
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Hva betyr det at arbeidsmarkedet er kjønnsdelt?
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Fremtidens arbeidsliv blir ikke mindre kjønnsdelt av seg selv. Aftenposten Viten.
  • Reisel, Liza (2017). Fremtidens arbeidskraft – hvordan velger dagens gutter og jenter utdanning og yrke?
  • Barth, Erling; Goldin, Claudia; Kerr, Sari Pekkala & Olivetti, Claudia (2017). The Average Mid-Forties Male College Graduate Earns 55% More Than His Female Counterparts. Harvard Business Review. 2017(06).
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2017). Skjevdeling bremser likestillingen. Dagens næringsliv.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2017). Kvinner og menn på toppen av næringslivet I et komparativt perspektiv. Norge og USA. Lansering av CORE Topplederbarometer 200.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2017). Kjønns(u)balanse i toppledelse. Betydning av kvoteringslov og karrieredilemmaer i Norge.
  • Teigen, Mari (2017). Er dette det norske samfunn? [Bokanmeldelse]. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning. 58(02), p. 232–235. doi: 10.18261/issn.1504-291X-2017-02-07.
  • Reisel, Liza (2016). Kvinner og utdanning i mannsdominerte bransjer.
  • Imdorf, Christian; Hegna, Kristinn & Eberhard, Verena (2016). Geschlechtersegregation im Bildungssystem – Welche Rolle spielt die Berufsbildung? Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis. 2016(2), p. 23–27.
  • Reisel, Liza; Attewell, Paul & Østbakken, Kjersti Misje (2016). Dynamics of Gender and Economic Niches in Norway and the United States.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona & Blair-Loy, Mary (2016). Does a family-friendly welfare state help shatter the corporate glass ceiling? Comparing Norway and the U.S.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2016). Hvordan står det til med kjønnsbalansen på toppen av næringslivet? Menn, kvinner og lederkarrierer – på ulike betingelser? .
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege (2016). Policies and practices regarding the articulation of professional, family and personal life in Norway – an analysis adopting a time use approach.
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege & Halrynjo, Sigtona (2016). Can paternity leave change gendered work-family patterns? An analysis of recent research from the Nordic countries.
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege (2016). Norwegian Gender Equality Policy: Historical Background, Development and Today's Challenges.
  • Kitterød, Ragni Hege (2016). Tidsbruk og arbeidstidsmønstre blant mødre og fedre.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2016). Kan vi tenke nytt om ledelse og livsfaser? Når er det «for sent» med en topplederkarriere?
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2016). Work-family dynamics and the logics of competition, care and regulation.
  • Blair-Loy, Mary & Halrynjo, Sigtona (2016). Bending Norms: Gender and the Cultural Understandings of Merit and Devotion.
  • Reisel, Liza (2015). Bokanmeldelse: Torgeir Nyen og Anna Hagen Tønder: Yrkesfagene under press. Søkelys på arbeidslivet. 32(3), p. 279–280.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2015). Karriere, kjønn og omsorgsansvar. Hva skjer i småbarnsfasen?
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2015). Kvinner og menn i toppledelse – karriereliv og familieliv.
  • Halrynjo, Sigtona (2015). Kjønn, karriere og familieliv i møte med konkurranselogikkens spilleregler.
  • Kitterød, Hege (2015). Holdninger til kjønnskvotering i styrer blant toppledere i norsk næringsliv. Mer positive når bedriften selv har lovkrav?
  • Kitterød, Hege (2015). Men in families – changes in time use?
  • Barth, Erling (2015). monopsonistic discrimination and the gender wage gap. In Durlauf, Steven N. & Blume, Lawrence E. (Ed.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Online Edition. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Blair-Loy, Mary & Halrynjo, Sigtona (2015). How shatterproof are glass ceilings in the business sector? Cultural and structural factors reinforcing gender inequality in the US and Norway.

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Tags: Working Life, Welfare, Gender Equality
Published Aug. 15, 2014 3:31 PM - Last modified Feb. 18, 2020 9:57 AM