Disruption, Social Capital and Resilience
A Longitudinal and Comparative Approach
The overall aim of the project is to examine how disruptive action aimed at doing harm and create fear influence the social capital and resilience of societies. The consequences of the terrorist attack on the 22nd of July 2011 are at the core of the project, but great emphasis is also placed on comparing experiences and consequences of disruptive events in different countries, more specifically in the US, Spain, France and Finland.
Deliberate and malicious disruptive actions such as terror can affect stocks of social capital. These effects play out differently in the short and long term and vary between contexts. Such disruptive action may enhance a sense of risk, worry and increased awareness and lead to political consequences such as decreased out group trust and political polarization.
By comparing five different societies, with different historical backgrounds and different experiences with terrorism, the project seeks to shed light on which factors are of importance in shaping societal reactions to disruptive events. If an enhanced sense of fear and awareness persists over time after a terrorist attack, this may influence social capital in society, in other words, networks and norms of collaboration. At the same time, the prevalence of social capital in a population can strengthen a society's resilience, for example by curbing fear and improving conditions for mass mobilizations in the aftermath of shocks.
Milestones in the project
● Flash surveys after the attacks in Paris and Nice, 2015/2016
When this project was first designed, we added the possibility of carrying out flash surveys in the aftermath of terrorist events, in the case that such events would occur in Europe or the US during the project period. After the Paris attacks in November 2015 we decided to do a comparative survey on fear of terrorism, trust and political reactions in our four countries, also including France.
Preliminary analyses show that levels of fear were considerably lower in Norway and Finland than in the three other countries right after the attacks, and that the populations in France, but also in Spain and the US expressed stronger reactions to the events. A set of comparative articles are now being developed based on these data, on the relationship between use of social media during the attacks and fear, on fear and attitudes towards different aspects of immigration policies and on the occurrence of online hate speech in this period.
After the Nice attack in July 2016 we also carried out a short survey in France. This survey will enable us to study changes in trust and fear in the period from the Paris attacks on and also, to discuss the consequences of being exposed to repeated terrorist attacks.
● Focus group interviews in Norway, spring 2016
In order to delve more deeply into people’s experience of the danger of terrorism and what terrorism might potentially do to society, we carried out five focus group interviews in Norway, with participant in different age groups and with a Muslim and non-Muslim background. Among the themes discussed was the experience of 22nd of July and of the current danger of terrorism. Based on these interviews we will write papers about how different groups understand and interpret terrorism and about what conditions resilience.
● Comparative survey, December 2016
In December we are carrying out a new wave of surveys in the five countries, which will also be useful for studying changes over time, and for evaluating the contextual factors that are of importance in shaping the responses to terrorism in different societies. In this survey we also examine how respondents react to different forms of terrorism, both right wing and ISIS-related.
Terrorism and the Media, Shana Gadarian, 17.07.17, on The National
Norway: Five years after Breivik killings, Kari Steen-Johnsen, 22.07.16, in Deutsche Welle
Kaakinen, M., Oksanen, A., & Räsänen, P. (2018). Did the risk of exposure to online hate increase after the November 2015 Paris attacks? A group relations approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 90-97.
|Bernard Enjolras Research Professor, Director Center for research on civil society and voluntary sector||PhD||+47 976 89 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Øyvind Bugge Solheim Research Fellow||PhD||+47 402 28 email@example.com|
|Kari Steen-Johnsen Research Director, Politics, democracy, civil society||PhD||+47 906 49 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Marte Winsvold Senior Research Fellow||PhD||+47 930 33 email@example.com|
|Dag Wollebæk Senior Research Fellow||PhDfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Shana Gadarian (Syracuse University, USA)|
|Francisco Herreros (the Spanish National Research Council, Spania)|
|Atte Oksanen (University of Tampere, Finland)|
- Bernard Enjolras; Shana Gadarian & Kari Steen-Johnsen (2019). Social Media Use and Fear Levels after the Paris 2015 Attacks: A Comparative Study, In Galia Golan; Miriam F. Elman; Catherine Gerard & Louis Kriesberg (ed.), Overcoming Intractable Conflicts : New Approaches to Constructive Transformations. Rowman & Littlefield International. ISBN 978-1786610737. Chapter 7.
- Dag Wollebæk; Rune Karlsen; Kari Steen-Johnsen & Bernard Enjolras (2019). Anger, Fear, and Echo Chambers: The Emotional Basis for Online Behavior. Social Media + Society. 5
- Bernard Enjolras; Kari Steen-Johnsen; Francisco Herreros; Øyvind Bugge Solheim; Marte Winsvold; Shana Gadarian & Atte Oksanen (2019). Does trust prevent fear in the aftermath of terrorist attacks?. Perspectives on Terrorism. 13, s 39- 55
- Atte Oksanen; Markus Kaakinen; Jaana Minkkinen; Pekka Räsänen; Bernard Enjolras & Kari Steen-Johnsen (2018). Perceived societal fear and cyberhate after the November 2015 Paris Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Political Violence.
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2018). Right-wing Terrorism and Out-group Trust: The Anatomy of a Terrorist Backlash. Terrorism and Political Violence. s 1- 19
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2019). Terrorism and Attitudes Toward Out-groups: A Political Perspective.
- Kari Steen-Johnsen & Audun Fladmoe (2019). How wide is the acceptance in the general public to publish religious cartoons in mass media? Evidence from a Norwegian survey experiment.
- (2019). Sosiale medier i krisesituasjoner.
- (2019). Stengning av sosiale medier etter terroren på Sri Lanka.
- (2019). Tillit og bevæpning av politiet.
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2018). “Our” security and “their” civil liberties – Investigating the effects of terrorism on public opinion.
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim; Kari Steen-Johnsen; Bernard Enjolras; Marte Winsvold; Francisco Herreros; Shana Gadarian & Atte Oksanen (2018). Terrorism, emotion and trust in Muslims.
- Kari Steen-Johnsen (2017). Disruption, Social Capital and Resilience. Innlegg ved avslutningskonferanse, SAMRISK II.
- Kari Steen-Johnsen & Marte Slagsvold Winsvold (2017). Islamic terrorism, out-group trust and the motivation to control.
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2017). Are we all Charlie? Tolerance and immigration attitudes after the Charlie Hebdo attacks.
- Bernard Enjolras; Kari Steen-Johnsen & Shana Gadarian (2016). Social media use and fear levels after the Paris 2015 attacks. A comparative study.
- Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2016). In-Group Terrorism and Out-Group Trust - The black sheep effect and the importance of the political discourse.