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Completed project

Changing familes and the gender revolution (FAMGEN)

Project period 2015 - 2018
Project employer Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Project nr. 10093
Project leader Trude Lappegård (SSB)

The point of departure for the project was three profound changes sweeping across modern societies: women surpassing men in higher education, growing female labour force participation and more involved men in the family. This gender revolution influences the family formation process and is moving at different paces across countries, which calls for comparative research on the interplay between gender roles and the family formation process.

The project had a strong international profile and we applied an analytical approach where the family formation process involves different components: (A) union formation, (B) couple specialization, and (C) childbearing. This novel approach took into account that the family formation process contains several components that influence each other: who enters unions and who partner with whom influence couple specialization and the relative economic position of men and women, which in turn influence childbearing, which may very well in return influence couple specialization.

Union formation patterns are also expected to influence childbearing directly. We argued that it is necessary to include the union formation process in analyses of couple specialization and childbearing because it determines the socioeconomic correlates of selection into unions, as well as how socioeconomic characteristics affect choice of union. While several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand the interplay of new gender roles and family behaviour at the societal level, there was need for more theories to better understand the mechanisms at the individual level.

Register data were used for the in-depth analyses of Norway, while survey data were used for the comparative analyses.


ParticipantDegree PhoneE-mail
Ragni Hege Kitterød Research Professor Dr. polit. +47 950 50 375
Trude Lappegård
Rannveig Kaldager Hart
Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik
Lars Dommermuth
Marit Rønsen
Janna Bergsvik


  • Janna Bergsvik; Ragni Hege Kitterød & Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik (2020). Parenthood and Couples' Relative Earnings in Norway. European Sociological Review.  36, s 218- 235
  • Jessica Nisén; Sebastian Klüsener; Johan Dahlberg; Lars Dommermuth; Aiva Jasilioniene; Michaela Kreyenfeld; Trude Lappegård; Li Peng; Pekka Martikainen; Karel Neels; Bernhard Riederer; Saskia te Riele; Laura Szabó; Alessandra Trimarchi; Francisco Viciana; Ben Wilson & Mikko Myrskylä (2020). Educational differences in cohort fertility across sub-national regions in Europe. European Journal of Population.  s 1- 33
  • Chiara Ludovica Comolli; Gerda Neyer; Gunnar Andersson; Lars Dommermuth; Peter Fallesen; Marika Jalovaara; Ari Klængur Jónsson; Martin Kolk & Trude Lappegård (2020). Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing During and After Recessions in the Nordic Countries. European Journal of Population.
  • Janna Bergsvik (2020). Linking Neighbors’ Fertility: Third Births in Norwegian Neighborhoods. Comparative population studies.  45
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Sigtona Halrynjo (2019). Mer likestilling med fedrekvote? Naturlige eksperimenter i norsk kontekst. Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning.  43, s 71- 89
  • Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik & Eva Bernhardt (2019). Gendered expectations: expected consequences of union formation across Europe. Journal of Family Studies.  25, s 214- 231
  • Anne Lise Ellingsæter; Ragni Hege Kitterød & Kjersti Misje Østbakken (2019). Immigrants and the ‘caring father’: Inequality in access to and utilisation of parental leave in Norway. Ethnicities.  20, s 959- 982
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Sigtona Halrynjo (2017). Mindre spesialisering med fedrekvote? Foreldrepermisjonens potensial for å endre arbeidsdelingen blant foreldre. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning.  58, s 311- 333
  • Ragni Hege Kitterød & Marit Rønsen (2017). Does Involved Fathering Produce a Larger Total Workload for Fathers Than for Mothers? Evidence from Norway. Family Relations.  66, s 468- 483
  • Janna Bergsvik; Ragni Hege Kitterød & Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik (2016). Forsørgermønstre blant par – likestilling eller spesialisering?. Søkelys på arbeidslivet.  33, s 379- 402

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  • Janna Bergsvik; Sara Cools & Rannveig Kaldager Hart (2020). Explaining residential clustering of fertility.. SSB - Discussion papers.
  • Lars Dommermuth (2019). Fertility in Norway.
  • Chiara Ludovica Comolli; Gerda Neyer; Gunnar Andersson; Lars Dommermuth; Peter Fallesen; Marika Jalovaara; Ari Jónsson; Martin Kolk & Trude Lappegård (2019). Beyond the Economic Gaze. Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography.  2019
  • Janna Bergsvik (2019). Linking neighbors’ fertility: Third births in Norwegian neighborhoods. Discussion papers.
  • Janna Bergsvik; Ragni Hege Kitterød & Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik (2018). Parenthood and couples' relative earnings in Norway 2005-2014. Discussion papers.

View all works in Cristin

Tags: Gender Equality, Working Life
Published Jan. 12, 2015 12:35 PM - Last modified June 3, 2019 10:27 AM